Presta vales are used because older generation road racing tires require high (100+ psi), Presta valves are smaller in diameter, easier for pumps & compressors to force air into tube at higher pressure.
If you try to inflate a Schrader valve to high pressure (above 100 psi.), you will need a very strong clamp to seal the valve to inflate the tire/tube.
If your tires do not require high pressure, Schrader valve works just fine.
Presta valves are better in almost every way, except that you need a bike-specific pump to use them.
They hold higher pressures and are all metal. They tend not to leak out naturally as much as Schraders, especially at pressures over about 60 psi.
Schrader valves don't necessarily need clamping force; some pumps or inflators have screw-on fittings.
The only challenges I've found with Prestas:
If you screw on the cap too tightly, it'll just bust through
You have to unscrew the top part of the valve JUST the right amount to inflate. At least with my hand pump that does Presta. Unscrew it too much and it just lets air out when you try to fit the chuck. Too little and it won't let you inflate. Like a lot of things of European design, they're fussy, but when you use them correctly, they work better.
I prefer with extreme predudice schrader valves for mtb simply for their ease of use and the ability to check my tire pressure with an accual tire gauge. Drilling my rims is usually the second thing I do to my bike after I get it (right after I rip off the reflectors and dork disk)
The original reason for Presta valves' existence was they required a smaller hole to be drilled thru a narrow rim. Using them compromised rim strength less. That was a century ago so modern materials and manufacturing has made this concern go away.
I personally prefer them across the board. Just for starters, they bolt themselves to your rim and the valve never 'walks' to one side the way schrader valves do (Schwalbe schraeder tubes have valves that are all metal and threaded to get around this). It also never falls down and thru like a rubber schraeder that is low on air pressure (which also shifts/walks under the same circumstance). Schraeder's weakness at high pressure has already been noted. There is also an argument that presta cores use air pressure and not a spring to stay closed, so they are more reliable.
You can do anything and everything with a presta that you can do with a schraeder, including using tire gauges. You just have to have one that works with presta. Same goes for compressor fittings etc. etc. Presta is on balance easier to deal with but like anything, there is always someone who can't get them to work and blames the equipment. I have heard all kinds of horror stories about how the cores break or they clog with slime... its never the loose nut holding the wrench that is at fault.
If all you have or all you know is schraeder, there is no reason to change for the sake of the valve. Go with what your equipment matches. Me, I've been riding and building bikes since the 1970's and, since quality bikes universally had presta valves before China entered the market, I have all presta gear. So no reason for me to change, either.